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時間:2019-04-11 11:40來源:未知 作者:anne 點擊:

1.0 Introduction 介紹

到2016年年底,因特網用戶的全球數字將超過3萬億,社會媒體用戶將超過2萬億,社會媒體已成為因特網發展的一個新趨勢,成為更多和更多內陸國家生活的一個整體部分(Hong and Kim,2016)。近年來,恐怖主義在世界各地的政治選舉、社會動態、恐怖主義問題中的影響顯著(Nulty,Theocharis,Popa,Parnet and Benoit,2014)。這篇論文是從討論的權利、調動的能力和沉默的螺旋,從三個角度探討社會媒體如何使民間社會運動在選舉運動中獲得更多的權力。
By the end of 2016, the global number of Internet users will exceed 3 billion, the social media users will more than 2 billion, social media has become a new trend of development of the Internet and an integral part of life of more and more netizens (Hong and Kim, 2016). Its far-reaching influence is highlighted in the political elections, social movements, problems of terrorism in countries around the world in recent years (Nulty, Theocharis, Popa, Parnet and Benoit, 2014). This essay is from discourse right, ability of mobilization and the spiral of silence, these three angles to explore how social media enables civil society campaigners to have more power in election campaigns.
2.0 Body主體
2.1 More right of discourse更多的討論權
In the past, in political electoral process, the discourse right is often controlled by traditional media, electors need to invest a lot of money to advertise through traditional media, and voters have to only passively accept information through traditional media (Knoche, 2016). The emergence of social media to a large extent changes the monopoly of the production and dissemination of information by traditional media to bring civil society campaigners more discourse right in election campaigns. For example, the "occupation of Wall Street" campaign broke out in the US in September 2011, in the early days of the campaign, few American traditional mainstream media, such as newspapers, radio, television reported it and the reports were not objective. However, the initiator "Adbusters" magazine took Facebook, Twitter and other social media platforms as the coordination platform to mobilize throughout the network to so that the occupy movement spread across the country. 
2.2 High efficiency of mobilizing the public 調動公眾的高效率
Mobilization of social elections in the past was conducted along a vertical top-down social ladder, it is a typical mode of domination of elite and passive participation of ordinary people. Today it is launched by opinion leaders, volunteers of the lower end of the social ladder respond, lead and social media proliferates the mobilization (Kim and Chen, 2016). For example, in the election in 2008, Obama first chose mobilization through the network as the primary electioneering means. This model has attracted strong interest of people to participate in the election, 80% of Obama's campaign funds was from online donation of "small donors" (Hong and Nadler, 2012). Another example happened in 2013, climate change protest demonstration occurred in Australia (Hance, 2013). The protest rally was not mobilized by political parties, factions, interest groups, but launched by common opinion leaders, extensive grassroots participation forced the Australian government to have to re-examine their policies on climate change (Borges, 2015).
2.3 Facilitating fair expression of views through breaking the spiral of silence 
Social media can help civil society campaigners to get more information sources and transmission routes in political electoral process, it can also contribute to the public’s more equitable expression of their views (DeNardis and Hackl, 2015).
Social media makes more Internet users no longer be negative "audience" of traditional media, but participants with operational capacity and the ability to take the initiative to disseminate information. The popularity of smartphones, panel computers and wireless networks make everyone become a "citizen reporter", breaking the information control by "professionals, so that sources of information are more diverse, anonymity of speaking through the Internet also allows the pressure of public opinion through the network to be reduced to form a positive "common space" of statement. Citizen reporters can not only produce mass content of information, but also carry out concerted action, so appeal can quickly spread to friends outside of the circle to lead to a spillover effect, causing lots of public attention (Huberty, 2015).
For example, in June 2013, a corporal named Hong Zhongqiu was dead after solitary confinement in Taiwan, the Taiwan society strongly questioned his death and launched a protest activity of 25 million people on August 3, 2013 (Cole, 2013). In the past, confidential things in army are usually not easily known and commented by the public, public opinion on military affairs are controlled by traditional media and the elite. In the era of social media, the public has more opportunity and means to break the spiral of silence to be equitably, actively involved in decision-making and implementation of social affairs.
3.0 Conclusion 
In the era of social media, social media advantages in producing and disseminating information to help civil society campaigners to have a better right to speak in the battle of election, it provides network capacity to mobilize electorate and breaks the spiral of silence to contribute to fair participation of electorate in public affairs.
Benthaus, J., Risius, M. and Beck, R. (2016). Social media management strategies for organizational impression management and their effect on public perception. The Journal of Strategic Information Systems, 25(2), 127-139.
Borges, W. (2015). Mass media and politics. International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences, 712-718.
Cole, J. M. (2013). Forget the PLA, Taiwan’s military threatens itself.
DeNardis, L. and Hackl, A.M. (2015). Internet governance by social media platforms. Telecommunications Policy, 39(9), 761-770. 
Hance, J. (2013). 60,000 protest in Australia to keep carbon price. 
Huberty, M. (2015). Can we vote with our tweet? On the perennial difficulty of election forecasting with social media. International Journal of Forecasting, 31(3), 992-1007.
Hong, S. and Kim, S. H. (2016). Political polarization on twitter: Implications for the use of social media in digital governments. Government Information Quarterly, 8(5), 603-618.
Hong, S. and Nadler, D. (2012). Which candidates do the public discuss online in an election campaign?: The use of social media by 2012 presidential candidates and its impact on candidate salience. Government Information Quarterly, 29(4), 455-461.
Goh, D. and Pang, N. (2016). Protesting the Singapore government: The role of collective action frames in social media mobilization. Telematics and Informatics, 33(2), 525-533.
Knoche, M. (2016). The media industry's structural transformation in capitalism and the role of the state: media economics in the age of digital communications. Triplec (Cognition, Communication, Co-Operation): Open Access Journal for a Global Sustainable Information Society, 14(1), 18-47.
Kim, Y. and Chen, H. T. (2016). Social media and online political participation: The mediating role of exposure to cross-cutting and like-minded perspectives. Telematics and Informatics, 33(2), 320-330.
Napoli, P. M. (2011). Audience evolution: new technologies and the transformation of media audiences. New York: Columbia University Press. 
Nulty, P., Theocharis, Y., Popa, S. A., Parnet, O. and Benoit, K. (2016). Social media and political communication in the 2014 elections to the European Parliament. Electoral Studies, 19(5), 102-123. 
Piolatto, A. and Schuett, F. (2015). Media competition and electoral politics. Journal of Public Economics, 130(10), 80-93.
Park, S. J., Lim, Y. S. and Park, H. W. (2015). Comparing Twitter and YouTube networks in information diffusion: The case of the “Occupy Wall Street” movement. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 95(6), 208-217.

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